Its GDP per capita is $42,339 compared with the UK's at $38,920. This means that the lowest detectable plume top altitude is about 1.2 km above the 1666 m high volcano. Eyjafjallajökull erupted spectacularly in 2010, snarling European air traffic and raining ash over the Thorvaldseyri farm run by his family since 1906. The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull had a social and economic impact at a European scale. Likewise, the explosion of Mount Krakatoa in Indonesia, in 1883 could be heard over 5000 km away, and the amount of dust and ash kicked up by that saw world-wide temperatures drop by 1.2 degrees Celsius. It is interesting to note that two of the fastest rising profiles start about 9 min apart on 17 April and both rise to about 5 km altitude, but in between those is a profile that rises at an intermediate velocity of about 8 m s−1 and only rises to 4 km. On an hourly basis there was a clear view of the plume‐top 17% of the time in addition to instances when the plume penetrated above the frame of the images (5%). To show the temporal evolution in more detail during these days, a 3‐hour mean altitude is shown instead of a 6‐hour mean altitude as in Figure 1. In the image, one such cloud head can be seen above the 3.5 km altitude line, and another burst below the 2 km mark has just exited the vent. A supervolcanoes is a volcano capable of producing a volcanic eruption with an ejecta volume greater than 1000 km 3; They are formed when magma rises from a hotspot but is unable to break through the crust, causing the pressure to build up in a growing magma pool until the crust is unable to contain it As many as 800 people had to be evacuated after the Eyjafjallajokull volcano in southern Iceland erupted yesterday.. The time period is the eruption period 14 April–23 May, for simplicity hereafter termed ‘spring’, in 2010 compared to the mean spring frequency for the 18 year period 1993–2010 (see Figure 3a). Wrong! Figure 12a shows the results of applying a second‐order finite differencing on all the profiles while Figure 12b shows the velocity as a function of height for a strong, weak and intermediate profile. Interestingly, though uncommon, both happenings took place consecutively causing huge economic meltdown on the horticulture sub-sector in Kenya. [23] Leadbetter and Hort [2011] showed, using the dispersion model NAME, that for an average eruption of Hekla with an initial plume altitude of 12 km it was most likely that the ash would disperse and be transported eastward in the first 24 hours, occupying the airspace over and immediately east of Iceland. The Impacts on the atmosphere was that it caused and delayed many airlines in Europe due to the volcanic ash that erupted from the volcano, which then leapt up into the air of at least 11000m into the air. A time series of the 6‐hour average altitude (km a.s.l.) Concerns exist, based on historical evidence, that the volcanic activity of Eyjafjallajokull will trigger the eruption of Katla – a bigger volcano nearby. Big grains go far: reconciling tephrochronology with atmospheric measurements of volcanic ash. and Chemical Oceanography, Physical During the effusive phase lava was flowing beneath the glacier and melting ice. This is also the only eruption in Iceland in decades resulting in southerly to easterly ash advection away from Iceland. impacts of ash on soils. Geophysics, Mathematical 12,500 homes were destroyed by ash and lava. This will be examined in a further study. Iceland’s Eyjafjallajökull Volcano burst into life for the first time in 190 years on March 20, 2010. Aircraft observations and model simulations of concentration and particle size distribution in the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash cloud. Mount Pinatubo, in the Phillipines, provided less warning, and killed over 800 people when it blew in 1991. Characteristics. Also, together the two explosive phases exceeded by far the duration of any explosive eruption phase in the last 30 years, see Table 1. Ejecta dispersal in plinian eruptions: The control of eruption conditions and atmospheric properties, Comparison of VAAC atmospheric dispersion models using the 1 November 2004 Grimsvötn eruption, The fluid dynamics and thermodynamics of eruption columns. At its highest point Eyjafjallajökull rises to 5,466 feet (1,666 metres) above sea level. The postconquest demographic collapse of the Americas and its impact onto this huge forested landmass accounts only for 20%–30% of the drop of CO 2 levels by 10 ppmv that he is considering. Our expert panel reflected this uncertainty with opinions divided as to whether the historic trend will continue on the same trajectory, accelerate, or decelerate. Language is a huge part of Icelandic culture and is a unifying factor for the country. Volcanic eruptions and other natural disasters have a great impact on a large number of people throughout the world every year. Many people had to move to overcrowded refugee camps. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Nearby, however, earthquakes underneath Eyjafjallajökull (an icecap-covered peak) suggested that magma was still moving in the same conduits that had brought lava to the surface at Fimmvörduháls. Observed temperature profiles (°C) over Keflavík International Airport 19, 21, 22 and 23 April 2010 at 00 UTC. A 500-meter- (2,000-foot) long fissure opened in the Fimmvörduháls pass to the west of the ice-covered summit of Eyjafjallajökull. . [41] Vertical velocities of the plume range from 15–20 m s−1 on the average, with speed estimates in some instances reaching up to 30 m s−1 when the eruption was at its strongest, to less than 5 m s−1 during the effusive phase. Iceland has several volcanoes and is situated on two tectonic plates – the North American plate and Eurasian plate. Social impacts. impact on our society - and some of these may have been factors in the way the virus took hold and spread in some countries, whether it be ageing population, household composition or population density. What Will Further Accelerate the Advancement of Solar Power? Bad weather makes visual observations difficult, but surveillance flights with radar and temperature sensors will shed light on the new conditions later today. (1896-1977), Chinese Journal of Geophysics (2000-2018), International [34] Differentiating the height profiles in Figure 11 yields profiles of velocity. However, even for strong eruptions, where the plume extends through the tropopause, the stability of the stratosphere will eventually cap its rise and upper level winds will determine its distribution. All of this ejecta floating through the air blocked a small but significant amount of sunlight. During the eruption radar estimates of the altitude of the volcanic plume were available 45% of the time. Simulations and parameterisation of shallow volcanic plumes of Piton de la Fournaise, La Réunion Island using Méso-NH version 4-9-3. Further evidence for this was found in a modeling study by Tupper et al. Thus, it is of interest to investigate the weather regime of the eruption period and discuss if this was an unusual situation. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, [1978], Settle [1978], Sparks and Wilson [1982], Sparks [1986] and Wilson et al. For future eruptions, in order to retrieve as much information as possible, a few sets containing both a visual and a multispectral camera located strategically around a volcano would be very useful. Over 1 million flower stalks were unsold in the first two days and over 50,000 farmers were temporarily unemployed as their beans and peas could not be sold. Tuyas: a descriptive genetic classification. The curve shows the mean annual frequency for 1993–2010 while the bars show the frequency for the spring period (14 April–23 May) of 1993–2010 (light gray) and for only 2010 (dark gray). Eyjafjallajökull is an ice cap located in the far south of Iceland that covers the caldera of a volcano on the Mid-Atlantic ridge and has erupted frequently since the last ice age It erupted from March to October 2010, causing significant disruptions to air travel in Europe from April to May In both cases ash production was much less than during the two explosive phases. Assessing hazards to aviation from sulfur dioxide emitted by explosive Icelandic eruptions. The death toll from the actual eruption was only 57, as scientists and authorities had plenty of warning that the mountain was set to erupt. Volcanic sulfur dioxide plume forecasts based on UV satellite retrievals for the 2011 Grímsvötn and the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. [24] In summary, the prevailing winds during the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, that advected the volcanic ash to the south and southeast of Iceland, were unusually persistent and rare. Conservative Destructive Collision Constructive Correct! Livestock had to remain indoors; Flights to Westman Islands were cancelled – 4,000 people live there and rely on fishing, they had to use slow ferry links to export their fish which affected their income and profits. Profiles of cloud head height for 10 different plume bursts. OpreaThe volcanic ash and its impact on European air transport industry. Simulations and parameterisation of shallow volcanic plumes of Piton de la Fournaise, Réunion Island, using Méso-NH version 4-9-3. Growing up in the boreal forest gave him an appreciation for nature, an appreciation that was enhanced by the works of his artist mother, Svala Dunn, who captured the landscapes and wildlife of the north in her oils and watercolors. The range is also determined by various in‐cloud processes that occur as the volcanic cloud is advected with the wind, especially processes affecting the aggregation and sedimentation rate of volcanic particles. Improving volcanic sulfur dioxide cloud dispersal forecasts by progressive assimilation of satellite observations. Previous airplane encounters with ash resulted in sandblasted windows and particles melted inside jet engines, causing them to fail. Oceanography, Interplanetary This should give us hope that, once we get our own emissions under control, that the global climate, too, will adjust and settle back down. However, during the May 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn, some ash was again dispersed in this direction. The crater at the top is 4 km across. In section 3 we give an overview of the weather situation during the eruption. There was an extensive air travel disruption caused by the closure of airspace over many countries affecting the travel arrangements of hundreds of thousands of people in Europe and elsewhere. Then we present an example of a diurnal variation in the eruption plume altitude during the effusive phase of the eruption where the stability of the atmosphere may have played a large role. He holds a Degree in Geography from the University of Alberta, with a concentration in Urban Studies. Inverting for volcanic SO Therefore, air traffic was grounded for several days. [37] In the decades leading up to the Eyjafjallajökull eruption there have not been any cases of widespread ash dispersal to the south and southeast of Iceland. There were many environmental impacts of this eruption, and scientists feared a climatic impact. Definitions of demographic impact, synonyms, antonyms, derivatives of demographic impact, analogical dictionary of demographic impact (English) The evolution of the ash cloud will also be influenced by synoptic scale features, such as uplift or subsidence [ Dacre et al., 2011]. [18] Convective activity during spring in Iceland is in general weak. Eyjafjallajökull ash (tropospheric only) spread thinly across Europe in 2010 and caused massive disruption of air traffic, business, and many other activities. Another example of the impact of the ambient atmosphere on the Eyjafjallajökull eruption plume is given by Arason et al. The following physics schemes were applied: The Morrison double‐moment microphysics scheme, the Eta similarity surface layer scheme, Noah land surface model, Mellor‐Jamada‐Janjic planetary boundary layer scheme and the Grell‐Devenyi cumulus parametrization scheme. However, there are variations within the demographic, perhaps the most interesting being the highly significant impact of observatory experience (J = 4691.0, z = −2.348, r = −0.19, p < 0.025): those with experience as scientists or chief scientists at observatories felt less strongly that academic volcanologists should seek to share resources with observatories. Two short‐term health studies were completed in the weeks (Carlsen et al., 2012) and months (Carlsen et al., 2012) following the event. The island itself lies on a constructive plate boundary where two plates are pulling apart. In fact one such mobile radar was operating in Iceland during the eruption of Grímsvötn in 2011. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Since its installation in 1991 the radar has been used for monitoring seven volcanic eruptions in Iceland: Hekla in 1991 [ Larsen et al., 1992], Gjálp in 1996, Grímsvötn in 1998, Hekla in 2000 [ Lacasse et al., 2004], Grímsvötn in 2004 [ Vogfjörd et al., 2005; Oddson, 2007], Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 and lastly Grímsvötn in 2011. In contrast, during the spring of 2010 westerly and northwesterly winds dominated. The cloud of ash forced the greatest airspace closure since World War II, cancelling nearly 100,000 flights and disrupting the travel plans of tourists and business travelers alike throughout northern Europe. Physics, Solar These issues can often best be addressed at the local and … [29] Capping inversions, such as observed at Keflavík airport and simulated in vicinity of the volcano, can impact the altitude reached by a volcanic plume if they exist close to the neutral buoyancy level of the plume as in this case, thus hampering the growth of the plume in a similar way as the much stronger temperature inversion at the tropopause. [22] Figure 4 shows the mean 500 hPa geopotential height, wind speed and wind vectors during the eruption in spring 2010 as described by the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Line parameter study of ozone at 5 and 10 μm using atmospheric FTIR spectra from the ground: A spectroscopic database and wavelength region comparison. As these images were sampled every 5 s they allowed for the tracing of the rising cloud heads. Geoscientific Model Development Discussions. Design Cross-sectional study. Breathing masks were recommended to be worn outside 11, p. 1782. Stefanie, L.C. Plinian eruption columns, The control of volcanic column heights by eruption energetics and dynamics, Explosive volcanic eruptions ‐ VI. In this section observations of the plume rise will be presented and discussed in the context of buoyancy and entrainment of ambient air. Non-exposed Iceland is an MEDC (more economically developed country). Mount St. Helens blew its top right off, and devastated 600 square kilometers of forest and buildings, blocked rivers, and resulted in localized flooding along the Columbia River. The curves show the profile from 3 UTC to 18 UTC every 3 hours. The horizontal axis shows the duration of the cloud rise (s). 15 April 2010. [35] The conceptual model of a volcanic plume [ Sparks, 1986] is one where a high velocity mixture of gas and solid particles is injected into the atmosphere at the vent. The potential environmental hazards that climate change brings such as – melting ice, rising sea levels, heavy storms, earthquakes and erupting volcanoes are evidence of how vulnerable societies are to the impacts of nature. Due to the distance from the radar to the eruption site as well as orographic blockage the radar cannot detect a volcanic plume, or clouds, below 2.9 km in altitude over Eyjafjallajökull. Eyjafjallajökull eruption: A new phase started on 14 April 2010 A new phase of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption started around midnight on the 14th of April, where melt penetrated its way to the central crater beneath the glacier. Finally, some conclusions are drawn regarding the significance of the eruption for tourism in Iceland. [11] This paper describes three examples of the influence of the ambient atmosphere on the volcanic plume. For the strong plume there is also a suggestion of deceleration at the lowest elevation, indicative of a gas thrust phase. When Eyjafjallajökull erupted in 2010, it clogged the atmosphere with so much volcanic ash that at one point the plume was grounding tens of thousands of global commercial airline flights a … The eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland on 20th March 2010 affected the economic, political and cultural activities in Europe and across the world.. When the volcanic plume was below radar detection limits but other measurements confirmed continued eruption the altitude is assumed to be 2.5 km. The eruption of the Eyjafjallajokull volcano is unlikely to have any significant impact on climate but has caused a small fall in carbon emissions, experts say. [6] The far field dispersal of volcanic plume constituents (e.g. Money Morning gives you access to a team of ten market experts with more than 250 years of combined investing experience – for free. The recent volcanic eruption of Mount Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland has once again brought home the effect that volcanoes can have on society, even in a technologically-advanced society. as observed by the weather radar at Keflavík airport 19–24 April 2010. 18 years of data, 1993–2010. The vertical distribution of volcanic SO2 plumes measured by IASI. [14] The C‐band weather radar at Keflavík International Airport was the only operational weather radar in Iceland during the eruption. T able I. Demographic characteristics of participants in a study on the health effects of the volcanic eruption in Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland 2010 (classified by exposure). [1956], Wilson [1976], Wilson et al. Thus, the researchers compared data from exposed and non-exposed regions in Iceland. [10] The 39 day eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 represented a unique opportunity to observe the influence of the ambient atmosphere on the evolution of a volcanic plume from a relatively small eruption, but one which had several different phases with different characteristics of atmospheric impact. Inverting for volcanic SO2 flux at high temporal resolution using spaceborne plume imagery and chemistry-transport modelling: the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption case study. Therefore fixed operational instruments although obtaining lower vertical resolution data, are vital parts of an monitoring system. The photo is taken at 20:12:14 UTC on 17 April. Local scale: Social : Evacuation of 700 people 200 farms destroyed Facial masks Economic: Farming sector was seriously affected Tourism to At this boundary magma rises up between the plates and cools as it contacts the ocean. and Paleomagnetism, History of When the volcanic plume was below radar detection limits but other measurements confirmed continued eruption the altitude is assumed to be 2.5 km. Finally there are some concluding remarks. Greener Ideal helps you live in more sustainable ways with green living tips, commentary on the latest environment news, green product reviews, healthy recipes, and more. Other volcanoes, some in the fairly recent past, have done more to illustrate just what a volcano can do, both regionally and to the global climatic system. Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland. Figure 7 shows temperature profiles at 00 UTC for four days during the effusive phase. The results of the 1 km horizontal resolution simulation show a nocturnal inversion in the vicinity of the volcano that weakens and dissipates during the morning. The eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland on 20 March 2010 affected the economic, political and cultural activities in Europe and across the world. Velocities in the plume of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Long-term variability of dust events in Iceland (1949–2011). 2 This makes the need for Europe to be united, stronger and more strategic all the m ore important. Money Morning gives you access to a team of ten market experts with more than 250 years of combined investing experience – for free. This is a large deviation from the climatological mean as can be seen in Figure 5. All the profiles show shallow inversions in the height interval 1–2.5 km altitude. Areas were flooded because of the glacier melt water which lay above the volcano. In addition, the annual frequency is also shown in Figure 3a. However, during 13 out of the 18 springs the frequency of a northerly wind component is within one standard deviation of the average frequency (35–63%), emphasizing the anomalously high frequency of northerly winds during the spring of 2010. Indeed, for eruptions in recent decades this eruption is the only one where the ash dispersal was to the south and southeast from Iceland (see Table 1). You have entered an incorrect email address! Given the prevailing westerly winds the ash would then during the first few days mainly be advected eastward. An example of an image from the camera at Hvolsvöllur. Although the calculated risk of speedy ash dispersal towards UK is low [ Leadbetter and Hort, 2011] it is obvious, due to e.g. Regional impacts examine those that are wider in extent. Finally, on 15 May a burst starting at 17:04:50 UTC was tracked rising by 3.1 km in about 200 s. [33] The three profiles with the strongest vertical motions (17 April, starting at 20:03:04 and 20:12:09, and on 15 May starting at 17:04:50) rise by 3 km or more in less than 200 second, implying an average speed of 15 m s−1 or more. Figure 10 shows the result for a burst that started on 17 April at about 20:08:30 UTC and could be traced until obscured by clouds at about 20:13:30 UTC. Effective messaging and communications have never been more important in the management of high-impact events. Three cases are shown in boldface; (b) the velocity in these cases as a function of altitude. As this process continues the plume eventually becomes positively buoyant and will rise convectively. For visualization, the lines show results where a Gaussian smoothing filter has been applied to the results of the differentiation, but the points in Figure 12b show the unfiltered results. 29, Issue. Simulation Comparisons of Particulate Emissions from Fires under Marginal and Critical Conditions. Section 4 presents the diurnal cycle in the plume height during the effusive phase of the eruption and section 5 the rise of individual cloud bursts associated with explosions at the volcano vent. Monitoring Dust Events Using Doppler Lidar and Ceilometer in Iceland. Properties of Rocks, Computational However, the millions of tons of ash and dust it threw up into the atmosphere caused longer-term effects over the entire globe. Journal of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, Nonlinear However, socio-demographic characteristics considered in those studies are still limited. Variational assimilation of IASI SO2 plume height and total column retrievals in the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull using the SILAM v5.3 chemistry transport model. For medium‐sized and small explosive eruptions less has been documented on the impact of the ambient atmosphere, most likely due to lack of observations and long term impact. It’s devastating effects on air travel were more of the “right-place, right-time” variety, rather than the power of this particular volcano. Few references could take other socio-demographic characteristics into consideration, such as nationality and career (Man et al., 2010, Son et al., 2016). Much depends on the strength of the eruption; the weaker it is the more scope there is for the atmospheric variations, such as wind‐shear and stability, to make their mark. 400,000 people were evacuated. Effects of Rayleigh-Taylor instability and Ionospheric plasma bubbles on the Global Navigation Satellite System signal. In a systematic sensitivity study, Graf et al. In this case, the two pates involved are the Atlantic and the Eurasian tectonic plate. This diurnal variation was also observed in the web camera plume altitude estimates. • Only 12% are ready to return. Geophysics, Biological Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. 11. Using a simplified convection model, Glaze and Baloga [1996] examined the buoyant rise of a moist plume and its sensitivity to ambient atmospheric conditions. [1] The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010 lasted 39 days, 14 April–23 May. . Simulated temperature profiles (°C) over Eyjafjallajökull, initial time 23 April 2010 00 UTC. In general, remote sensing of volcanic cloud constituents supports the results of dispersion models, although not always in detail [ Witham et al., 2007; Dacre et al., 2011]. Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. However, it is doubtful whether a 5 second time resolution is sufficient to resolve this phase. Over time, however, both local and global systems adjust and normalize. The ash plume from the eruption reached as high as 7km into the air, and the glass-rich ash caused major disruptions in air travel. These were seen as well defined cloud heads rising into the atmosphere above the volcano. The 500 hPa geopotential height anomaly had a tripole pattern over the North Atlantic with a positive anomaly of 130 m over the Irminger Sea, just southwest of Iceland. To place the weather situation during the eruption in a climatic context all accessible observed data of wind speed and direction at the 500 hPa level are examined, i.e. [7] The far field distribution has been the subject of intense research, since volcanic ash has in the past disrupted air traffic with considerable economic consequences [ Prata, 2009; Prata and Tupper, 2009]. During the two explosive phases of the eruption there were episodes of strong winds advecting ash to the south and southeast away from Iceland and one such episode caused widespread disruptions to air traffic. Large scale dispersion models rely on this information for their forecasts. Similarly, mobile radars located with a clear view of an eruption site would give more detailed information than the radar at Keflavík International Airport. A day later, the plume bursts were much weaker and two bursts rose by about 0.5 km in approximately 100 s. Following the re‐intensification of the eruption in May, a plume burst starting at 13:34:25 UTC on 10 May was tracked for about 225 s rising by about 2.4 km. After two weeks of spectacular lava fountains and lava flows, the eruption in Iceland’s Fimmvörduháls Pass was winding down by April 12, 2010. Clearly these differences cannot be associated with ambient atmospheric influences, but are rather associated with variations in the strength of explosive activity at the vent. The height of the eruption plume was monitored with a weather radar and with web cameras mounted with a view of the volcano. Two weather radar time series of the altitude of the volcanic plume during the May 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn, Iceland. The word is a compound of three different words. [31] Figure 9 shows an example image from the web camera at Hvolsvöllur taken on 17 April at 20:12:14 UTC. [1999] found that ambient wind, static stability as well as ambient temperature and humidity, all affected the maximum altitude reached by the plume. The source population in 2010 included all residents living close to the Eyjafjallajökull volcano (N=2066), a predominantly farming area, where people spend extensive time outdoors. Frequency of winds with a northerly component during spring is 49%. In the mean there was a trough over the eastern coast of Canada and a high pressure ridge over the North Atlantic. Atmospheric soundings from Keflavík and the results of experiments with the WRF model show that a nighttime capping inversion was present at 2.2–2.6 km altitude. To estimate physical and mental health effects of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption on nearby residents.Cross-sectional study.The Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull erupted on 14 April 2010. [38] As discussed in section 3 the situation in spring 2010 was indeed rather unusual, with a 71% frequency of a northerly wind component compared to 49% on average during the last 18 years, frequent northwesterly winds and a large deviation from the climatological mean circulation. The reasons for non‐availability were that (i) the altitude of the volcanic plume was below radar detection limits (27% of the time), (ii) the plume was obscured by precipitating clouds (11%), (iii) the radar scans were missing (7%) and (iv) short range doppler scans for weather monitoring were made twice per hour following 29 April (10%). Ash over the North Atlantic were the dominant features of the altitude is assumed be! On 14 April 2010, Eyjafjallajökull is a weak capping inversion at 2.2–2.6 km altitude describe! Are pulling apart ’ t exactly roll off news reporters tongue when the volcano 5 ] Numerical weather prediction NWP! Not treat the background atmosphere in any detail as high as 100,000 fights cancelled, annual! Constructed from the April-May 2010 eruption of Grímsvötn in 2011 in 2010 lasted 39 days, being the eruption! Volcanoes and is situated on two tectonic plates diverging, making Iceland prone to volcanic eruptions height evolution individual! 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A modeling study by Tupper et al every 3 hours the planet, and scientists feared a impact. At this boundary magma rises up between the atmosphere impacts demographic impacts of eyjafjallajökull volcanic constituents...

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