Owen Rutter, in his book, “The Pagans Of North Borneo”, published in 1929, wrote: “The Dusun usually describes himself generically as a tulun tindal (landsman) or, on the West Coast, particularly at Papar, as a Kadazan.”. The Nunuk Ragang area, after a while, became a place of chaos because Aki Turumpok abandoned the Labus religious laws (animism). The white men not knowing the real meaning of the word ‘dusun’ believed that these people were called ‘Dusun’. Magavau will then take place when the padi is winnowed and stored away into the barns. It was said that after the resurrection of Huminodun, from the original Bambaazon, the lifestyle of the Nunuk Ragang community as they were then known, began to improve as there was an abundant supply of food. These are usually available at the weekend market or Tamu in Donggongon, Penampang in which each set would cost between RM700 to RM1,500. They are the Yupiks and the Inupiat and the Athapaskans in Alaska, the Dene and the Inuit in Canada , the Inuit in Greenland, and the Saami in Scandinavia. As soon as the harvest is over, these stalks are cut by the priestess and taken into the house of the owner of the field. were referred to officially by the Sultanate as the 'Orang Dusun' which literally means 'people of the orchard' in the Malays language. The religious ceremonies are understood to be a means of seeking the spirit’s sanction and soliciting These names are, however, never used by the tribes themselves, but appear to have been applied to them by the Mohammedan invaders. Kandazon and the High Priestess Bobohizan Binjulin Sigayun from Kg. The Penampang Kadazans were scattered in numerous villages in the Penampang District and they still are. He wrote, “&ldots;The peoples of the Arctic, only 200,00 in the west, have stopped apologizing for themselves. This continues further into the night. With regard to the word ‘Dusun’ and how it came to be applied to these people, Owen Rutter in his book, “The Pagans Of North Borneo”, offers us the explanation as to how the word ‘Dusun’ came to be applied to the most largest ethnic group in Sabah. Kadazan Wedding in Sabah Not so long ago, the Kadazans arranged marriages, and weddings were a simple affair. As the crowd grew more, they felt that it was necessary for the laws of the society to be gazetted according to the rules of Usan-Usan. As to how long the word ‘Kadazan’ has existed, it is logical to assume that it existed simultaneously with the beginning of the indigenous people of Penampang and Papar. Glosbe is a collaborative project and every one can add (and remove) translations. The Kadazan community as a ritual isolate is in constant interaction with the spirit world. The Protestant influence is due to later British influence during the 20th century. Presumably, part of this view is the belief that the word ‘Kadazan’ was coined in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s. They are not merely unfinished products of the civilisation process. So when the indigenous people of Penampang and Papar call themselves ‘Kadazan’ meaning ‘the people’, then it is perfectly logical as other indigenous peoples of the world also call themselves ‘the people’. … Bhd. Thirdly, it is believed that the word came from ‘Kedayan’, the name of an ethnic group, residing mainly in Brunei and Labuan and not identified as part of the so-called ‘Dusunic’ peoples. Kadazan Dusun Cultural Association: 2020 Top Things to Do in Donggongon. Datuk Jintol Mogunting, the former District Native Chief of Penampang, who was an authority on the traditional culture and customs was also consulted and he gave similar narration of the legend that has been used for centuries of generations. A research has stated, "Over the next thousand years to 1500 BC, the Austronesians spread south through the Philippines to the Celebes, the Moluccas, northern Borneo and eastern Java. This included the policy of using Kadazan and other indigenous languages in public schools. For a discussion of this see Mojuntin, Peter, “Kadazan or Dusun — the Origin of the Kadazans”, Sabah Times, 23 11 1967.Google Scholar. It also uses locally available ingredients, such as bamboo shoots, sago and fresh water fish. Thus, the attentive observers were camping at every hilltop in the Pompod Tana area at that time to hear the gong sounds. For Dusun, a kindred is a group of relatives recognizing their relationship to a particular individual without regard to whether the relationship is traced through a male or female relative. Kadazan-Dusun, Dusun, Austronesian peoples The Kadazansare an ethnic groupindigenousto the state of Sabahin Malaysia. With regard to the word ‘Dusun’ and how it came to be applied to these people, Owen Rutter in his book, “The Pagans Of North Borneo”, offers us the explanation as to how the word ‘Dusun’ came to be applied to the most largest ethnic group in Sabah. When the South Vietnamese want to be polite they lump them together as ‘Montagnards’, French for ‘mountain men’, but more often they call them ‘moi’, Vietnamese for ‘savage’. Thirdly, it is believed that the word came from ‘Kedayan’, the name of an ethnic group, residing mainly in Brunei and Labuan and not identified as part of the so-called ‘Dusunic’ peoples. The Kadazan and Rungus migrated out of Nunuk Ragang through Labuk River. Subsequently, a great number of Kadazans migrated from Papar to Putatan-Penampang in the 1800s. This was how ‘Dusun’ came to be applied to the largest indigenous ethnic group of Sabah. Help us in creating the largest Malay-Kadazan Dusun dictionary online. In 1985, through the KDCA (formally called KCA) the term Dusun was reintroduced after much pressure from various parties desiring a division between the Kadazan and the 'Orang Dusun' once again. For example, bambangan is available as an ice cream flavour and chicken lihing soup or sup manuk nansak miampai lihing is popular with both Chinese and Kadazan communities alike. The Kadazans (part of Dusun Peoples) are an ethnic group indigenous to the state of Sabah in Malaysia. As for weddings, festive occasions and welcoming receptions for dignitaries, the rhythm of the gong beat is exhilarating, melodious, lively and smooth. They are also known as "Mamasok", which means "originals" or "indigenous people", respectively. The altercation was impactful enough that the Bangkaakon group had to move out and consequently made a settlement in an area known today as Minintod, Inanam.[15]. In pre-Chartered Company days, any contact between disparate groups usually means war, and the Kedayans were residing too far away from Penampang to have any significant relationships with them and to have influenced them to adopt their ethnic name. Simply log in and add new translation. According to a Lotud Bobolian, Bobolian Odun Badin, the term 'Kadazan' means 'the people of the land'. [16] On the bright side, Datuk Philip Lasimbang, Chair of Board of Directors Kadazandusun Language Foundation (KLF) had stated that the Kadazandusun language will never go extinct because it has entered our education system, is formalised and has been institutionalised.[17]. In fact, the Nunuk's latex is still used to treat rashes and other minor skin diseases in modern days. Dusun Tindal of Kota Belud, Tuaran and Tamparuli. Kadazan & Dusun Meanings. The leaders had made an agreement that the Tagahas (literally "strong") people were given a role to be the rear guard while others were immediately leaving Nunuk Ragang. In Rungus, kakadazan refers to "shops" or basically a town. The ceremony ends with merry making as a mark of thanksgiving. The Kadazan belief system centres around a single omnipotent deity called Kinorohingan. Efforts have also been done to allow the language to become official in the state. Linguistically, this phenomenon seldom happens, what more when the sound does not exist in the sound system of the Kadazan language. As the pictures above show, the traditional costume for both the men and women have a velvet black base and gold trimmings. Donggongon had about 20 shops arranged in two rows on each side of the road, and Kasigui had about 10 shops built on one side of the road. Modern dowry negotiations also include cash and land ownership deeds. It was because of his skills, he was persecuted. This task was done by a "Bobolizan", which roughly means "payer of sin and middle person in begging for forgiveness to Kinoringan". Additionally, the majority of the Kadazan-Dusun people believe that the spirits of their ancestors dwell on the top of Mount Kinabalu. 3, March 1971, when referring to the minority ethnic groups in Vietnam, wrote, “&ldots;These minorities often do not like what other people call them. Aki Rungsud instructed his men to find Aki Longuvai and luckily they found Aki Longuvai in Pinampang. Thereafter, the priestess and attendants stand up and circle slowly around the living room, while chanting. Eventually, the competitions are held at district level where the Sumazau competitions were judged according to its choreography and the magagung according to the gong beats, rhythm and tempo. The majority of the Kadazans are Christians, mainly Roman Catholics[5] and some Protestants. Let us examine the first explanation that ‘Kadazan’ came from ‘kakadazan’. This means that he started working in Sabah from 1910 and left Sabah in 1914. Islam has lately been embraced by a growing minority as a means to political ends considering the fact that the local Malay minority has gained political ascendance in recent years. There have also been claims that word ‘Kadazan’ had been coined by politicians in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s. Conversion to Islam, in a Malaysian context, also results in an automatic conversion by law of ethnicity to Malay (source?) Only through the establishment of the KCA (Kadazan Cultural Association) in 1960 was this terminology corrected and replaced by 'Kadazan'. This means that he started working in Sabah from 1910 and left Sabah in 1914. To judge the merits of this explanation, we have to consider the historical background of urban development in the Penampang District. But these indigenous peoples, according to Priit J. Vesilind in his article, “Hunters Of The Lost Spirit” published in the National Geographic, vol. So when the indigenous people of Penampang and Papar call themselves ‘Kadazan’ meaning ‘the people’, then it is perfectly logical as other indigenous peoples of the world also call themselves ‘the people’. Each group's direction of migration is guided by the flow of Liwagu River. They are found mainly in Penampang on the west coast of Sabah, the surrounding locales, and various locations in the interior. The Kadazans (part of Dusun Peoples) are an ethnic group indigenous to the state of Sabah in Malaysia. In fact, the word ‘Kadazan’ is not of recent origin. The Kadazandusun were traditionally animists but have been influenced by both Christianity and Islam. The stone must be chosen by the offender. their protection during a climb.[10]. specializes in nature based tours with packages. The Kadazandusun is the largest native group of Bumiputra in Sabah. Salah satunya ialah adat perkahwinan. The servants of Aki Rungsud invited Aki Longuvai to join a mission in Pompod Tana but Aki Longuvai declined the invitation. Therefore, the Momogun grandchildren or descendants should choose a high place, a hill or the highest mountain in any area they would settle at. They are not merely unfinished products of the civilisation process. As the colonialists initially colonized the Penampang area, it had an early development with the establishment of shops for the colonial business's interests at that time. ‘Kakadazan’ in the Tangaa’ dialect means ‘towns’. For instance, the people living in Greenland and northern Canada are often referred to by outsiders as Eskimos. Then, the Momogun population grew more and more during the era of Aki Nunuk Ragang. 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% Population in Sabah Population in Sabah Kadazan Dusun is the largest ethnic in Sabah 9. Sweets include hinompuka, a type of gooey rice cake steamed in banana leaves and flavoured with dark palm sugar. According to the ancestors, the people of Aki Longuvai who settled in the area of "kedai-kedai" or shops, were originally known as Kadazan people. Peter T. White in his article, “Mosaic Of Cultures” published in the National Geographic, vol. The third explanation is that the word ‘Kadazan’ came from the word ‘Kedayan’, which is the name of an ethnic group living mainly in Brunei and Labuan. This was how ‘Dusun’ came to be applied to the largest indigenous ethnic group of Sabah. Kadazan-Dusun pagan spirits Sabah’s animist Kadazan-Dusun practised animism and believed all objects have a spirit or soul. Donggongon had about 20 shops arranged in two rows on each side of the road, and Kasigui had about 10 shops built on one side of the road. Research Issues and Objective Nunuk is a Dusun word for banyan tree. Descent in Dusun culture is bilateral. These names mean roughly the same thing––‘the people’.”. Presumably, part of this view is the belief that the word ‘Kadazan’ was coined in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s. email: [email protected].com The single beat of a solitary gong at short intervals was used to be signal for emergencies such as house on fire and missing people who were lost in the jungle or drowning. A religious figure proficient in law who inherited the customs of Usan-Usan was Aki Bobolizan Gomburon. They are found mainly in Penampang on the west coast of Sabah, the surrounding locales, and various locations in the interior. Most of the Kadazan-Dusun tribes believed they are descendants of Nunuk Ragang people. This caused him to be punished with his faithful wife and people by banishing them into the ocean. In Kadazandusun tradition, souls … There was no "religion" for ancient Kadazan-Dusuns and to them, it was just a sort of relationship between the seen and the unseen. After being treated by Bobohizan for a day, sometimes for three days, one is not allowed to go out from the house. And fifthly, that the term was coined by politicians. After a while, they start to sing songs of praise to Bambaazon. Let us examine the first explanation that ‘Kadazan’ came from ‘kakadazan’. The second explanation for the origin of the word ‘Kadazan’ was that it was derived from the word ‘kedaian’ from the Malay word ‘kedai’. So that ‘orang Murut’ and ‘Dusun’ [respectively] meant ‘men of the hills’ and ‘men of the orchards’ or ‘gardens’.” From simple appetizers of unripe mango dressed with soy sauce and chili flakes to a variety of pickled foods collectively known as noonsom, tangy and pungent flavours from souring agents or fermentation techniques is a key characteristic of traditional Kadazan cooking. So, Aki Turumpok was the heir of Kg. Those who put forward this explanation have not given any reasons why the Kadazans of Papar and Penampang had decided to call themselves after the Kedayans. He called himself an 'Usan-Usan', who had no family as he was being persecuted by his own siblings. A Bobohizan from Penampang, Gundohing Dousia Moujing, gave a similar meaning of Kadazan and reiterated that the term has always been used to describe the real people of the Land. 16. He was good at making animal traps and making weapons which were capable of protecting his community then. The above account by Owen Rutter seems to suggest that the word ‘dusun’ was used by the Bajaus of the coastal areas of the West Coast in referring to the native people of Penampang and Papar. See more ideas about borneo, sabah, indigenous peoples. Kadazan-Dusun Youth Consumerist Culture: Social Media, Clothing and Fashion Andreas Totu, Kadazan-Dusun Chair, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Malaysia Sabah. On the origins of the words ‘Dusun’ and ‘Murut’, he wrote: “The pagans are usually divided into two main tribes, to which are given the distinguishing names of Murut and Dusun. The fourth explanation is that the word ‘Kadazan’ means ‘the people’. 139, No. Kadazan women from the Penampang and Dusun women from the Keningau, Ranau and Tuaran districts are widely regarded to have the most expensive dowries. It is the longest performance of the Bobohizan that could last for almost 24 hours. When asking for help from a Bobohizan to cure someone's prolonged or severe illness, the priestess is usually called upon. One branch went east from the Moluccan Island of Halmahera about 1600 BC to colonize eastern Melanesia (1200 BC) and Micronesia (500 BC). Kadazan Dusun Cultural Association travelers' reviews, business hours, introduction, open hours. Traditional Kadazan cuisine involves mostly boiling or grilling which employs little use of oil, and with locally unique modifications and nuances as well as particular usage of locally available ingredients, particularly bamboo shoots, sago and fresh water fish. The gong beats to accompany any ritual ceremonies are usually monotonous. The Kadazans believe in four principal spirits; the Almighty Creator (Minamangun), a living person's spirit (koduduvo), the ghostly spirit of the dead (tombivo) and the evil spirit (ogon). Kadazans are mainly inhabitants of the flat valley deltas, conducive to paddy field farming, while Dusuns are traditionally inhabitants of the hilly and mountainous regions common to the interior of Sabah. In the early 1900s, these brass items were valuable items and became a symbol of family wealth. In fact, the word ‘Kadazan’ is not of recent origin. KDCA's humble beginning started with the birth of the Society of Kadazan Penampang in 1953. The word ‘Murut’ is derived from the Bajau ‘belud’ ‘hill’ and ‘Dusun’ from the Malay ‘dusun’ ‘orchard’. Most of the explanations of the meanings and origins of the word ‘Kadazan’ assumed that the word was of recent origin––specifically in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s––as assumed in the explanations for its origin from ‘kakadazan’ (towns), ‘kedai’ (shops), and from the claim that Kadazan politicians such as the late Datuk Peter J. Mojuntin coined the term. Nunuk looks like a giant mangrove tree with highly developed buttress stems with deep indentions that provide good natural shelters. In an earlier 2005 Unesco’s report, the Kadazan-Dusun language was classified as an endangered language, spoken by a mere 300,000 people. The ships that they had boarded, were stranded on the island of Borneo, so they headed to Pampang Nabalu for religious purposes. Thus, the most likely explanation for the term ‘Kadazan’ is that it means ‘the people’. The most important festival of the Kadazans is the Kaamatan or harvest festival, where the spirit of the paddy is honoured after a year's harvest. In the fifties, there were only two towns, namely Donggongon and Kasigui. This was because Aki Longuvai was not willing to live in a war and to be in the state of emergency there. Secondly, it is believed that the word came from ‘kedaian’, derived from the word ‘kedai’ and supposedly to mean, people of the town. According to a Genome-wide SNP genotypic data studies by human genetics research team from University Malaysia Sabah (2018),[2] the Northern Borneon Dusun (Sonsogon, Rungus, Lingkabau and Murut) are closely related to Taiwan natives (Ami, Atayal) and non–Austro-Melanesian Filipinos (Visayan, Tagalog, Ilocano, Minanubu), rather than populations from other parts of Borneo Island. The above account by Owen Rutter seems to suggest that the word ‘dusun’ was used by the Bajaus of the coastal areas of the West Coast in referring to the native people of Penampang and Papar. P.S. The Penampang Kadazans were scattered in numerous villages in the Penampang District and they still are. Those who put forward this explanation have not given any reasons why the Kadazans of Papar and Penampang had decided to call themselves after the Kedayans. As the Kedayan people are not part of the so-called ‘Dusunic’ group, there was and is very little contact between the two groups. An extensive research was carried out by Gundohing Richard Francis Tunggolou entitled, The Origins and Meanings of the terms “Kadazan” and “Dusun". Dusun East / Southeast Asia. [14][circular reference]As they settled the West Coast, the Kadazans met the Bruneians and other settlers. We can therefore safely say that the word ‘Kadazan’ was already in existence before any towns or shops were built in the Penampang District and that Kadazan politicians did not invent the word in the late fifties and early sixties. Shim insisted that the Kadazan tribe settled the plains of Kimanis, Papar around 1220. Then, the people of Aki Nunuk Ragang worshipped the tree and named it Nunuk Ragang because they believed the tree was the incarnation of Aki Nunuk Ragang. Bambaazon stays in the house, guarding the paddy in the barn until the next planting season when another ceremony known as monogit is performed to take 'her' to the paddy field. Aki Nunuk Ragang decided to take control of the entire coastal area to keep the people safe. Did the Penampang and Papar Kadazan really name themselves after the word ‘town’? This is where they made the decision to split, in which one group would be heading to Matunggong, Kudat and the other would be heading to the West Coast, particularly Penampang and Papar. The Chinese people often refer to themselves also as ‘the people’ and call others ‘kui’ or devil. Their own name for themselves may be ‘People of the Forest’ or simply ‘the people’. These names mean roughly the same thing––‘the people’.”. Again those who espouse this explanation have not come up with valid reasons why the people of Penampang and Papar called themselves after a shop. Aug 28, 2018 - Kadazandusun (also written as Kadazandusun) is the term assigned to the unification of the classification of two indigenous peoples of Sabah, Malaysia—the ethnic groups Kadazan and Dusun. Suku Dusun Kimaragang kebanyakannya tinggal di Daerah Kota Marudu di utara Sabah. MONGUMPAI, LUMABAT ATAU SUMONDOT, DAN MANGATOD. In marriages, dowries are paid to the bride's family and an elaborate negotiation is arranged between the groom and bride's families. It is a salad made with pieces of raw fish marinated in citrus juice, ginger, onion and other ingredients like bitter gourd and grated dried bambangan seed which is similar in texture to desiccated coconut strands. Specifically, the first group was the Tangaa group. This was all due to one route, in which there were two pathways that were going towards opposite directions. Again those who espouse this explanation have not come up with valid reasons why the people of Penampang and Papar called themselves after a shop. Kadazan culture is heavily influenced by the farming of rice, culminating in various delicacies and alcoholic drinks prepared through differing home-brewed fermentation processes. Except for one shop, all the other shops in both Donggongon and Kasigui were owned by Chinese. The Kadazan have a musical heritage consisting of various types of tagung ensembles - ensembles composed of large hanging, suspended or held, bossed/knobbed gongs which act as drone without any accompanying melodic instrument. Kadazan-Dusun has been recognized as an indigenous nation of Borneo with documented heritage by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) since 2004.[1]. Kadazandusun is the collective name for more than 40 sub-ethnic groups which can be divided to three main groups: the Kadazan/Dusun, Murut and Orang Sungai. Dowries traditionally consisted of water buffaloes, pigs, sacks of rice and even urns of tapai. This takes place in May, and the two last days of the month are public holidays throughout Sabah. The selected stalks of paddy symbolise the spirit of paddy, which is Bambaazon. How come these people, who never stayed in a town, suddenly decided to call themselves after ‘town’? The Nunuk Ragang or 'the red banyan tree' as told by the old folks, Widu Tambunan, measured of six out-stretched arms in circumference. The latest type of gongs are made entirely of flat iron sheets, that were produced in Kudat. Check out updated best hotels & restaurants near Kadazan Dusun Cultural Association. Why would a group of people look for a non-existent foreign word to call themselves? Today, Aki Bulun's descendants are known as Rungus Gonsomon who once dominated the east coast of Kudat. able to read or write a simple letter in any language. 139, No. The Bobolians or the Bobohizans of Borneo were interviewed to seek better picture of the true meaning of the term 'Kadazan'. Over a hundred years, the Kadazans were ruled by the Brunei Sultanate; the Kadazan or Kadayan (in Lotud, Kimaragang, Liwan etc.) Thus, the most likely explanation for the term ‘Kadazan’ is that it means ‘the people’. Sinuangga” and “tapi” is known as the traditional garments for Kadazandusun w omen. There have also been claims that word ‘Kadazan’ had been coined by politicians in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s. They are found mainly in Penampang on the west coast of Sabah, the surrounding locales, and various locations in the interior. Kadazan food is an identity and identification of the Kadazan. The third explanation is that the word ‘Kadazan’ came from the word ‘Kedayan’, which is the name of an ethnic group living mainly in Brunei and Labuan. [7][8][9] Prior to the conversion to Christianity and Islam, the dominant religion was Momolianism, which some scholars equate to animism. Those who proposed this view have not come up with answers as to why these people who did not live in a town had decided to call themselves ‘people of the town’. Sumazau is the name of the dance between a male and female, performed by couples as well as groups of couples, which is usually accompanied by a symphony of handcrafted bronze gongs that are individually called tagung. 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